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脊柱关节如何区分(如何区分脊柱关节类型)

Introduction

The vertebral column or spine is a vital structural and functional component of the human body. It supports the upper body's weight, encases and protects the spinal cord, and provides bony attachment sites for muscles and ligaments. The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae, each of which has several distinct features, including the presence of distinct types of spinal joints. This article will discuss how to differentiate the various types of spinal joints.

脊柱关节如何区分(如何区分脊柱关节类型)

Types of Spinal Joints

There are three types of spinal joints in the vertebral column: vertebral joints, intervertebral joints, and sacroiliac joints. Vertebral joints are the joints between the vertebral bodies, which primarily provide support to the spine. Intervertebral joints are the joints between the individual vertebrae, providing flexibility and mobility to the vertebral column. Sacroiliac joints are the joints between the sacrum and the ilium that transfer weight between the trunk and the lower extremities.

Vertebral Joints

The vertebral joints are classified into three types: synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous. The synovial vertebral joints are located between the adjacent vertebral arches, including the facet joints, which are the primary intervertebral motion-supporting joints. These joints allow rotation, flexion, and extension movements of the vertebral column. In contrast, the cartilaginous vertebral joints connect the vertebral bodies through an intervertebral disc. These joints provide support and some degree of mobility to the vertebral column, but they are less mobile than synovial joints. The fibrous vertebral joints are located between the spinous and transverse processes, providing limited mobility to the vertebral column.

Intervertebral Joints

The intervertebral joints are the connections between adjacent vertebrae and are classified into two types: the symphysis and the synovial joints. The symphysis intervertebral joint is a cartilaginous joint between the vertebral bodies, comprising an intervertebral disc and a fibrocartilaginous annulus. This joint provides cushioning, flexibility, and support to the spinal column. The synovial joint is found where the superior and inferior articular processes of the adjacent vertebrae articulate, providing the primary movement between the vertebral bodies.

Sacroiliac Joints

The sacroiliac joints are located between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. These joints transfer the weight of the head, trunk, and upper limbs to the lower extremities. They are synovial joints that support a limited range of movement, primarily in the gliding and slight rotational motions. Alterations in sacroiliac joint mobility can cause lower back, hip, and groin pain.

Conclusion

In summary, the vertebral column has three distinct categories of joints: vertebral joints, intervertebral joints, and sacroiliac joints. The vertebral joints are classified into three types, while the intervertebral joints are classified into two types. Understanding these spinal joint classifications is essential for healthcare professionals to effectively diagnose and treat a range of spinal disorders.